Victor Marie Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement. Hugo is considered to be one of the greatest and best-known French writers. Outside of France, his most famous works are the novels Les Misérables, 1862, and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame , 1831. In France, Hugo is known primarily for his poetry collections, such as Les Contemplations and La Légende des siècles .
André Paul Guillaume Gide was a French author and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1947 "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight". Gide's career ranged from its beginnings in the symbolist movement, to the advent of anticolonialism between the two World Wars. The author of "more than fifty books", at the time of his death the New York Times obituary described him as "France's greatest contemporary man of letters" and "judged the greatest French writer of this century by the literary cognoscenti."